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AN OVERVİEW OF THE RELATİONSHİP BETWEEN EXTERNAL POLİTİCAL EFFİCACY AND POLİTİCAL PARTİCİPATİON İN THE CONTEXT OF POLİTİCAL PSYCHOLOGY: A STUDY ON UNİVERSİTY STUDENTS

Yıl 2022, Cilt 7, Sayı 1, 17 - 31, 26.04.2022

Öz

This study, which focuses on the relationship between the phenomena of political participation and external political efficacy, was carried out with a survey conducted on university students. In this study, the phenomenon of External Political Efficacy is discussed in line with Balch's (1974, p. 24) explanation as "'external efficacy' is the belief that political authorities or the regime are sensitive to influencing initiatives". In this context, a two-question scale obtained by the internal/external distinction brought by Craig et al. (1990, pp. 292-294) to the statements measuring the "sense of political efficacy" in the pioneering study of Campbell et al. (1954, p. 187) was used. The political participation scale was adapted from the study of Caprara et al. (2009, p. 1012). The questionnaire was applied to 280 people according to the easily accessible sampling method and through a web-based questionnaire. We analysed frequency distributions and Kendall's Tau Correlation coefficients by using SPSS 23 software. The analysis was limited to the types of participation in which subjects gave "Yes" and "Sometimes" answers to the participation types included in the political participation scale. As a result of the study, we observed that while the political participation in the form of voting behaviour increased, the sense of External Political Efficacy also increased. This finding is consistent with the findings in the literature. Further research is needed for its relationship with other forms of political participation.

Kaynakça

  • Abramson, P. R., & Aldrich, J. H. (1982). The Decline of Electoral Participation in America. The
  • American Political Science Review, 76(3), 502-521.
  • Almond, G. A., & Verba, S. (1989). The Civic Culture_ Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations. London: Sage.
  • Amnå, E., Munck, I., & Zetterberg, P. (2004). Meaningful Participation? Political Efficacy of Adolescents in 24 countries. Emerging Repertoires of Political Action: Toward a Systematic Study of Postconventional Forms of Participation at ECPR Joint Sessions of Workshops. Upsala.
  • Ashton, a. T. (1983). A Study of Teachers' Sense of Efficacy. Final Report, Executive Summary. Florida: Foundations of Education, University of Florida.
  • Balch, G. I. (1974). Multiple Indicators in Survey Research: The Concept "Sense of Political Efficacy". Political Methodology, 1(2), 1-43.
  • Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived Self-Efficacy in Cognitive Development and Functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28(2), 117-148.
  • Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy in Changing Societies. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
  • Bentzen, S. S. (2014). Perceptions Of Corruption & External Political Efficacy: Regime Stability & Democratic Legitimacy. Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 784.: onic Theses and Dissertations. 784. adresinden alındı
  • Bowler, S., & Donovan, T. (2002). . Democracy, Institutions and Attitudes about Citizen Influence on Government. British Journal of Political Science, 32(2), 371-390.
  • Campbell, A., Gurin, G., & Miller, W. E. (1954). The Voter Decides. New York: Peterson.
  • Caprara, G. V., Vecchione, M., Capanna, C., & Mebane, M. (2009). Perceived political self-efficacy: Theory, assessment, and aplications. European Jounal of Social Pschology, 1002-1019.
  • Clarke, H. D., & Acock, A. C. (1989). National Elections and Political Attitudes: The Case of Political Efficacy. British Journal of Political Science, 19(4), 551-562.
  • Craig, S. C., & Maggiotto, M. A. (1982). Measuring Political Efficacy. Political Methodology, 8(3), 85-109.
  • Craig, S. C., Niemi, R. G., & Silver, G. E. (1990). Political Efficacy And Trust: A Report On The Nes Pilot Study Items. Pohtical Behavior, 12(3), 289-314.
  • Davis, C. L., & Colema, K. M. (1976). The Structural Context of Politics and Dimensions of Regime Performance: Their Importance for the Comparative Study of Political Efficacy. Comparative Political Studies, 9, 189-206.
  • Dyck, J. J., & Lascher, E. L. (2009). Direct Democracy and Political Efficacy Reconsidered. Political Behavior. Political Behavior, 401-427.
  • Finkel, S. E. (1987). The Effects of Participation on Political Efficacy and Political Support: Evidence from a West German Panel. The Journal of Politics, 49(2), 441-464.
  • Gurin, P., Gurin, G., & Morrison, B. M. (1978). Personal and Ideological Aspects of Internal and External Control. Social Psychology, 41(4), 275-296.
  • Iyengar, S. (1980). Subjective Political Efficacy as a Measure of Diffuse Support. Public Opinion Quarterly, 44(2), 249-256.
  • Karaman, T. (2004). Political efficacy and its antecedents in contemporary Russia. Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, 20(2), 30-49.
  • Karp, J. A., & Banducci, S. A. (2008). Political Efficacy and Participation in TwentySeven Democracies: How Electoral Systems Shape Political Behavior. British Journal of Political Science, 38(2), 311-324.
  • Kölln, A.-K., Esaiasson, P., & Turper, S. (2013). External Efficacy and Perceived Responsiveness – Same, same or different? EPOP 2013 Conference 13-15 Eylül 2013. Lancester: https://www.lancaster.ac.uk/fass/events/epop2013/docs/External%20efficacy%20and%20responsiveness%201209.pdf.
  • Kraska-MIller, M. (2013). Nonparametric Statistics for Social and Behavioral Sciences. New York: Chapman and Hall/CRC.
  • Miller, W. E., A. H., & Schneider, E. J. (1980). American National Election Studies Data Sourcebook, 1952-1978. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Nicholls, J. G. (1984). Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological Review,, 91(3), 328-346.
  • Niemi, R. G., Craig, S. C., & Mattei, F. (1991). Measuring Internal Political Efficacy in the 1988 National Election Study. The American Political Science Review, 85(4), 1407-1413.
  • Norris, M. (2016). The Economic Roots of External Efficacy: Assessing the Relationship between External Political Efficacy and Income Inequality. Canadian Journal of Political Science, 1(4), 1-23.
  • Pateman, C. (1971). Political Culture, Political Structure and Political Change. British Journal of Political Science, 1(3), 291-305.
  • Pinkleton, B. E., Austin, E. W., Zhou, Y., Willoughby, J. F., & Reiser, M. (2012). Perceptions of News Media, External Efficacy, and Public Affairs Apathy in Political Decision Making and Disaffection. 89(1), 23-39.
  • Pollock, I. P. (1983). The Participatory Consequences of Internal and External Political Efficacy: A Research Note. The Western Political Quarterly, 36(3), 400-409.
  • Rosenstone, S. J., & Hansen, J. M. (1993). Mobilization, participation, and democracy in America. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
  • Schulz, W. (2005, Eylül 8-10). Political Efficacy and Expected Political Participation among Lower and Upper Secondary Students. ECPR General Conference in Budapest: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED499264.pdf adresinden alındı
  • Schunk, D. H. (1989). Self-efficacy and ability in achievement behavior. Educational Psychology Review, 1, 173–208.
  • Shaffer, S. D. (1981). A Multivariate Explanation of Decreasing Turnout in Presidential Elections, 1960-1976. American Journal of Political Science, 25(1), 68-95.
  • Ulbig, S. G. (2008). Voice Is Not Enough: The Importance of Influence in Political Trust and Policy Assessments. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 72(3), 523-539.
  • Valentino, N. A., Gregorowicz, K., & Groenendyk, E. W. (2009). Efficacy, Emotions and the Habit of Participation. Political Behavior, 31(3), 307-330.
  • Vetter, A. (1997). Political Efficacy - Reliabilitiit und Validitiit. Wiesbaden: Deutscher Universitots-Verlag GmbH.
  • Watts, M. W. (1973). Efficacy, Trust, and Commitment to the Political Process. Social Science Quarterly, 54(3), 623-631.
  • Zúñiga, H. G., Diehl, T., & Ardévol-Abreu, A. (2017). Internal, External, and Government Political Efficacy: Effects on News Use, Discussion, and Political Participation. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 61(3), 574-596.

Dışsal Siyasal Etkililik İle Siyasal Katılma Arasındaki İlişkiye Bakış: Üniversite Öğrencileri Üzerine Bir İnceleme

Yıl 2022, Cilt 7, Sayı 1, 17 - 31, 26.04.2022

Öz

Siyasal katılma ve Dışsal Siyasal Etkililik olguları arasındaki ilişkiye odaklanan bu çalışma bir üniversite öğrencileri üzerinde uygulanan anket çalışmasıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu çalışmada Dışsal Siyasal Etkililik olgusu Balch’ın (1974, s. 24) "‘dışsal etkililik’, siyasal yetkililerin veya rejimin girişimleri etkilemeye duyarlı olduğu inancıdır” şeklindeki açıklaması doğrultusunda ele alınmıştır. Bu bağlamda Campbell vd.nin (1954, s. 187) öncü çalışmasında yer alan genel olarak “siyasal etkililik duygusu”nu ölçen ifadelerine Craig vd.nin (1990, s. 292-294) getirdiği içsel/dışsal ayrımıyla elde edilen iki soruluk ölçek kullanılmıştır. Siyasal katılma ölçeği Caprara vd.lerinin (2009, s. 1012) çalışmasından alınarak uyarlanmıştır. Anket, kolay ulaşılabilir örnekleme yöntemine göre ve web tabanlı soru formu aracılığıyla 280 kişiye uygulanmıştır. Alan araştırması sonucunda elde edilen verilen SPSS 23 yazılımı yardımı ile Frekans dağılımları ve Kendall’s Tau Korelasyon katsayıları ile analiz edilmiştir. Analiz, deneklerin siyasal katılım ölçeğinde yer alan katılım türlerine “Evet” ve “Bazen” cevaplarını verdikleri katılım türleri ile sınırlandırılmıştır. Çalışma sonucunda oy verme davranışı şeklindeki siyasal katılma artarken Dışsal Siyasal Etkilik duygusunun da arttığı gözlemlenmiştir. Bu bulgu literatürde konan bulgularla uyumludur. Siyasal katılımların diğer türleri ile olan ilişkisi için ileri araştırmalara ihtiyaç duyulmaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • Abramson, P. R., & Aldrich, J. H. (1982). The Decline of Electoral Participation in America. The
  • American Political Science Review, 76(3), 502-521.
  • Almond, G. A., & Verba, S. (1989). The Civic Culture_ Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations. London: Sage.
  • Amnå, E., Munck, I., & Zetterberg, P. (2004). Meaningful Participation? Political Efficacy of Adolescents in 24 countries. Emerging Repertoires of Political Action: Toward a Systematic Study of Postconventional Forms of Participation at ECPR Joint Sessions of Workshops. Upsala.
  • Ashton, a. T. (1983). A Study of Teachers' Sense of Efficacy. Final Report, Executive Summary. Florida: Foundations of Education, University of Florida.
  • Balch, G. I. (1974). Multiple Indicators in Survey Research: The Concept "Sense of Political Efficacy". Political Methodology, 1(2), 1-43.
  • Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived Self-Efficacy in Cognitive Development and Functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28(2), 117-148.
  • Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy in Changing Societies. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
  • Bentzen, S. S. (2014). Perceptions Of Corruption & External Political Efficacy: Regime Stability & Democratic Legitimacy. Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 784.: onic Theses and Dissertations. 784. adresinden alındı
  • Bowler, S., & Donovan, T. (2002). . Democracy, Institutions and Attitudes about Citizen Influence on Government. British Journal of Political Science, 32(2), 371-390.
  • Campbell, A., Gurin, G., & Miller, W. E. (1954). The Voter Decides. New York: Peterson.
  • Caprara, G. V., Vecchione, M., Capanna, C., & Mebane, M. (2009). Perceived political self-efficacy: Theory, assessment, and aplications. European Jounal of Social Pschology, 1002-1019.
  • Clarke, H. D., & Acock, A. C. (1989). National Elections and Political Attitudes: The Case of Political Efficacy. British Journal of Political Science, 19(4), 551-562.
  • Craig, S. C., & Maggiotto, M. A. (1982). Measuring Political Efficacy. Political Methodology, 8(3), 85-109.
  • Craig, S. C., Niemi, R. G., & Silver, G. E. (1990). Political Efficacy And Trust: A Report On The Nes Pilot Study Items. Pohtical Behavior, 12(3), 289-314.
  • Davis, C. L., & Colema, K. M. (1976). The Structural Context of Politics and Dimensions of Regime Performance: Their Importance for the Comparative Study of Political Efficacy. Comparative Political Studies, 9, 189-206.
  • Dyck, J. J., & Lascher, E. L. (2009). Direct Democracy and Political Efficacy Reconsidered. Political Behavior. Political Behavior, 401-427.
  • Finkel, S. E. (1987). The Effects of Participation on Political Efficacy and Political Support: Evidence from a West German Panel. The Journal of Politics, 49(2), 441-464.
  • Gurin, P., Gurin, G., & Morrison, B. M. (1978). Personal and Ideological Aspects of Internal and External Control. Social Psychology, 41(4), 275-296.
  • Iyengar, S. (1980). Subjective Political Efficacy as a Measure of Diffuse Support. Public Opinion Quarterly, 44(2), 249-256.
  • Karaman, T. (2004). Political efficacy and its antecedents in contemporary Russia. Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, 20(2), 30-49.
  • Karp, J. A., & Banducci, S. A. (2008). Political Efficacy and Participation in TwentySeven Democracies: How Electoral Systems Shape Political Behavior. British Journal of Political Science, 38(2), 311-324.
  • Kölln, A.-K., Esaiasson, P., & Turper, S. (2013). External Efficacy and Perceived Responsiveness – Same, same or different? EPOP 2013 Conference 13-15 Eylül 2013. Lancester: https://www.lancaster.ac.uk/fass/events/epop2013/docs/External%20efficacy%20and%20responsiveness%201209.pdf.
  • Kraska-MIller, M. (2013). Nonparametric Statistics for Social and Behavioral Sciences. New York: Chapman and Hall/CRC.
  • Miller, W. E., A. H., & Schneider, E. J. (1980). American National Election Studies Data Sourcebook, 1952-1978. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Nicholls, J. G. (1984). Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological Review,, 91(3), 328-346.
  • Niemi, R. G., Craig, S. C., & Mattei, F. (1991). Measuring Internal Political Efficacy in the 1988 National Election Study. The American Political Science Review, 85(4), 1407-1413.
  • Norris, M. (2016). The Economic Roots of External Efficacy: Assessing the Relationship between External Political Efficacy and Income Inequality. Canadian Journal of Political Science, 1(4), 1-23.
  • Pateman, C. (1971). Political Culture, Political Structure and Political Change. British Journal of Political Science, 1(3), 291-305.
  • Pinkleton, B. E., Austin, E. W., Zhou, Y., Willoughby, J. F., & Reiser, M. (2012). Perceptions of News Media, External Efficacy, and Public Affairs Apathy in Political Decision Making and Disaffection. 89(1), 23-39.
  • Pollock, I. P. (1983). The Participatory Consequences of Internal and External Political Efficacy: A Research Note. The Western Political Quarterly, 36(3), 400-409.
  • Rosenstone, S. J., & Hansen, J. M. (1993). Mobilization, participation, and democracy in America. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
  • Schulz, W. (2005, Eylül 8-10). Political Efficacy and Expected Political Participation among Lower and Upper Secondary Students. ECPR General Conference in Budapest: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED499264.pdf adresinden alındı
  • Schunk, D. H. (1989). Self-efficacy and ability in achievement behavior. Educational Psychology Review, 1, 173–208.
  • Shaffer, S. D. (1981). A Multivariate Explanation of Decreasing Turnout in Presidential Elections, 1960-1976. American Journal of Political Science, 25(1), 68-95.
  • Ulbig, S. G. (2008). Voice Is Not Enough: The Importance of Influence in Political Trust and Policy Assessments. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 72(3), 523-539.
  • Valentino, N. A., Gregorowicz, K., & Groenendyk, E. W. (2009). Efficacy, Emotions and the Habit of Participation. Political Behavior, 31(3), 307-330.
  • Vetter, A. (1997). Political Efficacy - Reliabilitiit und Validitiit. Wiesbaden: Deutscher Universitots-Verlag GmbH.
  • Watts, M. W. (1973). Efficacy, Trust, and Commitment to the Political Process. Social Science Quarterly, 54(3), 623-631.
  • Zúñiga, H. G., Diehl, T., & Ardévol-Abreu, A. (2017). Internal, External, and Government Political Efficacy: Effects on News Use, Discussion, and Political Participation. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 61(3), 574-596.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Nigar DEĞİRMENCİ> (Sorumlu Yazar)
PAMUKKALE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-6295-6265
Türkiye


Ferda Esin GÜLEL>
PAMUKKALE UNIVERSITY
0000-0001-7060-7914
Türkiye

Erken Görünüm Tarihi 26 Nisan 2022
Yayımlanma Tarihi 26 Nisan 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 5 Aralık 2021
Kabul Tarihi 10 Şubat 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 7, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { tursbad1032865, journal = {Türk Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi}, issn = {2548-009X}, eissn = {2548-0103}, address = {}, publisher = {Hasan Kalyoncu Üniversitesi}, year = {2022}, volume = {7}, number = {1}, pages = {17 - 31}, title = {Dışsal Siyasal Etkililik İle Siyasal Katılma Arasındaki İlişkiye Bakış: Üniversite Öğrencileri Üzerine Bir İnceleme}, key = {cite}, author = {Değirmenci, Nigar and Gülel, Ferda Esin} }
APA Değirmenci, N. & Gülel, F. E. (2022). Dışsal Siyasal Etkililik İle Siyasal Katılma Arasındaki İlişkiye Bakış: Üniversite Öğrencileri Üzerine Bir İnceleme . Türk Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi , 7 (1) , 17-31 . Retrieved from http://tursbad.hku.edu.tr/tr/pub/issue/69571/1032865
MLA Değirmenci, N. , Gülel, F. E. "Dışsal Siyasal Etkililik İle Siyasal Katılma Arasındaki İlişkiye Bakış: Üniversite Öğrencileri Üzerine Bir İnceleme" . Türk Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi 7 (2022 ): 17-31 <http://tursbad.hku.edu.tr/tr/pub/issue/69571/1032865>
Chicago Değirmenci, N. , Gülel, F. E. "Dışsal Siyasal Etkililik İle Siyasal Katılma Arasındaki İlişkiye Bakış: Üniversite Öğrencileri Üzerine Bir İnceleme". Türk Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi 7 (2022 ): 17-31
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Dışsal Siyasal Etkililik İle Siyasal Katılma Arasındaki İlişkiye Bakış: Üniversite Öğrencileri Üzerine Bir İnceleme AU - Nigar Değirmenci , Ferda Esin Gülel Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - DO - T2 - Türk Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 17 EP - 31 VL - 7 IS - 1 SN - 2548-009X-2548-0103 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Türk Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi Dışsal Siyasal Etkililik İle Siyasal Katılma Arasındaki İlişkiye Bakış: Üniversite Öğrencileri Üzerine Bir İnceleme %A Nigar Değirmenci , Ferda Esin Gülel %T Dışsal Siyasal Etkililik İle Siyasal Katılma Arasındaki İlişkiye Bakış: Üniversite Öğrencileri Üzerine Bir İnceleme %D 2022 %J Türk Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi %P 2548-009X-2548-0103 %V 7 %N 1 %R %U
ISNAD Değirmenci, Nigar , Gülel, Ferda Esin . "Dışsal Siyasal Etkililik İle Siyasal Katılma Arasındaki İlişkiye Bakış: Üniversite Öğrencileri Üzerine Bir İnceleme". Türk Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi 7 / 1 (Nisan 2022): 17-31 .
AMA Değirmenci N. , Gülel F. E. Dışsal Siyasal Etkililik İle Siyasal Katılma Arasındaki İlişkiye Bakış: Üniversite Öğrencileri Üzerine Bir İnceleme. JOTSSR. 2022; 7(1): 17-31.
Vancouver Değirmenci N. , Gülel F. E. Dışsal Siyasal Etkililik İle Siyasal Katılma Arasındaki İlişkiye Bakış: Üniversite Öğrencileri Üzerine Bir İnceleme. Türk Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi. 2022; 7(1): 17-31.
IEEE N. Değirmenci ve F. E. Gülel , "Dışsal Siyasal Etkililik İle Siyasal Katılma Arasındaki İlişkiye Bakış: Üniversite Öğrencileri Üzerine Bir İnceleme", Türk Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi, c. 7, sayı. 1, ss. 17-31, Nis. 2022